Citroën History

© Copyright: J.Cats.


Select the type of Citroën you're interested in:


Type A 1919-1921

Models:
- Torpedo 3 places (short chassis)
- Torpedo 4 places (long chassis)
- Torpedo Sport
- Conduite interieure 3 places (short or normal chassis), also called Coupé Docteur
- Conduite interieure 4 places (normal chassis)
- Coupé de ville (normal chassis)
- Landaulet (1922)

This was the first production car made by Citroën. The aim was to produce a light and good quality car in large numbers. A car for the masses. These cars can be identified by the angled radiator, 3 louvres in the bonnet and doors with sharp corners.
1919: May through december was Citroëns first production year. 1327cc, 18 hp @ 2100rpm, non synchromesh 3 speed gearbox, 65/68 km/h top speed.
1920: All promotion is focused on the best selling Torpedo 4 places model. The A is the first french car built in large numbers. It's also called the first european car. because Citroën is the first to use the american production techniques on the european continent. More then 20.000 cars are built in 1920.
1921: There is a new model, the Torpedo Sport. It has a beautiful boat tail body and is available with the normal A engine or with the Special, 1452cc, 22 hp, 75 km/h top speed. This engine also has another novelty: overhead valves as used on all modern cars.
1922: The A is replaced by the B2.


Type B2 1922-1925

Models:
- Torpedo 3 and 4 places
- Torpedo 3 places caddy
- Torpedo sport
- Conduite interieure 4 and 6 windows
- Coupé grand luxe
- Landaulet grand luxe
- Taxi
- Normande

This was essentially the same model as the Type A but with a few differences. These include: Stronger engine and cooling with a vent. It was very successful because of it's economics and toughness. These cars can be identified by the angled radiator, 3 louvres in the bonnet and doors with rounded corners. Here are the changes year by year:
1922: Introduction. Citroën gets lots of publicity from fuel consumption races and the taxi fleet that has been set up. The B2 is an instant success.
1923: The Normande is introduced. The Caddy which replaces the Torpedo 4 places sport has 22 hp due to lightened aluminium pistons. It's top speed is 90 km/h! The B2 can now be recognized by its bonnet with 16 louvres instead of only 3.
1924: Bigger tires and rear shock absorbers. In the spring the production of the Caddy ends.
1925: The B2 is slowly being replaced by the B10.


Type C,C2,C3 1922-1926

Models:
- Torpedo 2 places
- Torpedo 3 places
- Cabriolet 3 places

This is probably the smallest car ever produced by Citroën. It only has one door on the passengers side and they're very likeable little cars (nicknamed cloverleaf). Here are the changes year by year:
1922: The Torpedo 2 places is the only model and available from the summer of 1922 onwards. 856cc, 11hp, 69 km/h top speed. Because of its bright yellow colour it's sometimes nicknamed the Lemon.
1923: New model, the Cabriolet 2 places. The bonnet now has 16 louvres in stead of 3. The C is now called the C2.
1924: New model, the Torpedo 3 places. The C2 is now called C3
1925: The Torpedo 3 places now has its spare wheel fitted to the rear in stead of on left. It's seating is changed to 2 next to each other in front, 1 in the middle at the rear. Because of this arrangement these cars are nicknamed Trefle which means Cloverleaf.
1926: The Torpedo 2 places is dropped.The C3 is equally expensive to built as the B10 but is sold for much less! Therefore the C3 is dropped after this year. This last year the cars can be identified by their curved wings instead of flat ones.


Type B10,B12,B14 1925-1928

Models: (To many body types to be mentioned here.)
- B10 1925
- B12 1926
- B14 1927-1928

These were the follow ups of the B2 with a lot of refinements from the previous models. From the B10 onwards the bottom of the doors on the Torpedo models are curved instead of horizontal. Here are the changes year by year.
1925: The B10 is introduced. It has a full steel body. This is a first on the european continent. These cars can be identified by their curved wings. Apart from a little more weight, the engine and performance are the same as the B2.
1926: The B10 is replaced by the B12. Because the strong B10 body was put on a fragile B10 chassis these cars had the tendency to bend in the middle and door would open on bad roads! Also the whole concept is based on a Budd Company license and this costs to much money. Therefore changes are made to improve chassis strength and get rid of the license. The new model resulting from all this is the B12. The B10 front axle is also revised and braking is now taken care off by drum all round operated by cables. The B12 can be identified by the 2 round nobs on the side of the chassis that give acces to a tool compartment.
1927: The B10 is replaced by the B14. Changes are: flat radiator, bigger fuel tank, larger engine (1538cc, 22 hp, top speed 80 km/h). The B14F is identical to the B14 but has Westinghouse servo brakes standard! Remember this is 1927!
1928: The B14 and B14F are replaced by the B14G. On the Conduite Interieure cars, the roof is now no longer flat but curved. This model also has the Westinghouse servo brake.


Type C4,C6 1929-1932

Models: (To many body types to be mentioned here.)
- C4 1929-1932
- C6 1929-1932

The C4 was the follow up of the B14 and the C4 and C6 can be idnetified by the large chrome section at the bottom of the grille with the crank hole in it. Here are the changes year by year:
1929: Introduction of the AC4 also called C4. The body is not radically different but the mechanics and especially the engine are different. The engine is now 1628cc, 30 hp (40% increase), topspeed 90 km/h. Also new is the AC6 or C6. It has an 6 cylinder, 2442cc, 45 hp engine giving the car a top speed of 105 km/h. It can easily be identified by the longer bonnet.
1930:The C4 is replaced by the C4 III also called C4 NT. Changes include a new dashbord and a sun visor with V emblem. The C6 is replaced with the C6F. One of the changes is 5 bolt wheels instead of 4 bolt ones. The 5 bolts are covered by a small hubcap.
1931: The C4 is now called C4F. Changes include 5 bolt wheels and different engine suspension, predecessor of the famous "Moteur Flottant". The C4F is also available as the C4 F Large which has increased track width. The C6F is also available in another series, called Citroën Grand Luxe. It has a stronger engine, 2650cc, 53 hp, 110km/h top speed.
1932: A new engine is available for the C4 which is now called C4G. 1767cc, 32 hp, 95 km/h topspeed. The C4 is also available as Large or Grand Luxe. The C6F is replaced by the C6G. It has the engine from last years Grand Luxe. The Grand Luxe has been replaced by th C6G Speciale. This car is available with 3 interesting body options. First is the Tout Alu (all alu) and the others are the SICAL Coach or Coach Decouvrable. From April 1st all cars have Floating Power engine suspension, reducing vibrations dramatically. For this occasion the names are also changed. Now they're called: C4G M.F.P. , C4G Grand Luxe M.F.P. , C6G M.F.P. , C6G Speciale M.F.P. (MFP is of course Moteur Floating Power)
1933: The C series is replaced by the Rosalie.


Rosalie 1933-1934

Models: (To many body types to be mentioned here.)
- 8
- 10 Légère
- 10
- 15 Légère
- 15
- 15 grand luxe

The Rosalie name was derived from the racing car Petite Rosalie which had achieved several speed and long distance records and was basically the same except for the slightly different body.
This car was a whole new concept. The engine wasn't that revolutionary but it had the Floating Power principle so it was still ahead of its time. It had a tubular chassis, one piece steel body, 3 synchronized gears, and it was one of the first production cars in which the principles of aerodynamics were used in the design of the body.
1933: The 8 is the basic model and has a small engine, 1425cc 32hp which takes the car to 90 km/h. The 10 has a fairly standard engine with 1767cc 36hp engine which takes the car to 100km/h (110 km/h on the 10 Légère), approx. 63mph. The 15 however has the 6 cylinder engine with 2650cc 56hp good for 110km/h (120 km/h on the 15 Légère). The engines are about the same as the C4/C6 but even though the cars are heavier, the improved aerodynamics keeps the top speed the same.
1934: From January onwards the aerodynamics are even more improved. The grille is tilted and wings are enlarged. These cars are named NH (nouvelle habilage). The cars are equipped with independent front torsionbar suspension. Again Citroën is far ahead of the competition.


7UA, 11UA, 11UD 1935-1938

Models:
- Berline
- Berline commerciale
- Conduite interieure
- Familiale
- Conduite interieure commerciale

These were cars in the style of the Rosalie but were yet a bit more progressive. The cars were more for those people who thought the Traction Avant was too different. The 7UA has the Traction Avant 7C engine (95 km/h) and the 11UA has the Traction Avant 11 engine (100 km/h).The 11UD was something special though. This was one of the first series production car to have a Diesel engine! Not many Diesels were made and these are now extremely rare.


Traction Avant 7, 11L, 11, 15, 22 1934-1957

Models:
- Cabriolet
- Faux cabriolet (coupé)
- Berline
- Limousine
- Familiale

This is Citroëns most revolutionairy car ever. It incorperates a lot of new ideas, and although some of these had been used on production cars before, the Traction Avant is the first where all these ideas are put together into one mass produced car.
The new ideas were:

  • Unitary construction.
  • Front wheel drive.
  • Double whisbone independant front suspension.
  • Torsion bar suspenion.
  • Aerodynamicaly shaped body with all the weight close to the road.

For a detailed history, see the Traction Avant Index.

Here are the changes year by year:
1934:

  • 7A:
    Production starts April the 19th 1934, first car is sold on May 3rd 1934. These cars have 72x80mm 1303cc 32 hp engine, roof made of moleskin, horns on the bumper, floating power engine suspension (including radiator), no boot lid, twin air inlets below windscreen and twin fuel filler necks, 95 km/h topspeed.
  • 7B:
    The 7B replaces the 7A completely, the 7A being not powerful enough. The first 7Bs appear June 1934. These cars are exterior and interior largely identical to the 7A. 78x80mm 1529cc 35 hp engine. Front bonnet shutters that open at the front but with the handles still at the rear, 100 km/h topspeed.
  • 7S:
    The 7 Sport is introduced to satisfy the customers wanting a more powerful car. This is done by fitting a 11 engine into a 7 body. First appearance is in June 1934. It should have been called 11 but because of the fact that all publicity is aimed at the 7, it's called the 7 Sport. These cars have 78x100mm 1911cc 46 hp engine, identical appearance to the 7B but always with steel roof and 109 km/h topspeed.
  • 7C:
    The first 7Cs are exterior and interior the same as the 7B, so with moleskin roof and horns on the bumper. From November all cars get the steel roof and horns behind grilles in the wings. Then the tubular rear axle is replace by the cruciform one. In December a new engine suspension is installed, called suspension Pausodyne. 72x100mm 1628cc engine and the front bonnet shutter handles are now located on the front of the bonnet.
  • 11 A:
    The 11 is a wide bodied version of the 7 with the same engine as the 7S. It was advertised as being able to give comfortable transportation for up to 6 people. 3 on the front bench and 3 on the rear. The first 11 appears in August 1934. These cars have a grille with a flat top, steel roof, floating power engine suspension but not the radiator and 12" brake drums.
    In November 1934 the Floating Power engine suspension is replaced by the Pausodyne system.
  • 11 AL:
    Now that the name 11 is more familiar, the 7S is replaced by the 11AL, first shown on the 1934 Salon in October. The L stands for Légère, or light. All acrs have the pausodyne engine suspension. Soon the production of the 11AL is combined with the 11A, and all changes concern both.
On the 1934 Salon the new Familiale and Limousine are introduced. Both cars have rear doors which look symmetrical to the front ones. Also featured as a new model on the salon is the 22 V8. This should have been the best T.A. of all with its 8 cylinder engine 3822cc, 100hp with a top speed off 140km/h or 88mph. But the 22 is never taken into production.
1935: In October the 7 and 11AL get bootlids. The 11A gets this modification somewhat later.
1936: All cars get the rack and pinion steering. The same system is found on most modern cars. The speedometer is moved from the center of the dash to behind the steering wheel. All cars get one air inlet below the windscreen instead of the previous two. The Familiale and Limousine get bootlids as well.
1937: The names are changed from 11AL to 11BL and 11A to 11B to indicate standardisation in the Traction Avant series. Most notable is that now all cars have 5 bolt wheels.
1938: Two major changes. First the appearance of the commerciale. This is a car similar to the Limousine but it has a large 2 part boot lid and it is probably the world first hatchback! Second, in June 1938 a new model, the 15 Six is introduced. It has a 6 cylinder engine, 2867cc, 77hp and topspeed is 130km/h or 81mph.
1939: Uprated engines for the 11B and 11BL. The new engines still have 1911cc but now with 56 hp.The engine is called 11 Perfo (Performance). This results in a top speed of 115km/h/72mph for the 11B and 120km/h/75mph for the 11BL.
1940-1946: It's war time so there are no changes and and very little production.
1947-1951: Citroën is back with only 3 models! The 11 Légère, the 11 Normale (11B) and the 15 Six. All berlines only. The cars are similar to before with the exception of a louvred bonnet instead of one with 4 little doors. The 15 always had louvres.
1952: A major change to the cars appearance. The bootlid with the spare wheel on top is replaced by a bigger one, in order to get more boot space. Unfortunately the spare now goes inside the boot so the space gained is limited. The bumpers get straightened and there are some small changes to the interior of the cars.The 15 gets even bigger straight bumpers then the 11. These are optional on the 11. The 15 also gets small doors in the nose above the wings for improved ventilation on long trips.
1953: No changes.
1954: The reentry of the commerciale, only this time with a one piece boot lid. The 15 Six Familiale is available again and is the longest Traction Avant ever. The 15 Six also has another spectacular novelty. It can be bought with hydraulic suspension on the rear wheels. This makes this exceptional car even more comfortable.
1955: The 11B and BL get an uprate from 56 to 60hp. The engine is called 11D.
1956: No more 15 Six. No other changes.
1957: THE END!!! On the 25th of July the last Traction Avant leaves the factory. No big parties but a silent goodbye for the car the that was around for 23 years.


2CV 1948-1990

The 2cv must be the most famous Citroën of all times. The objective was a car that would be usable on the back roads of France, with as little maintenance as possible.

For month to month changes, please go too:

Here are the biggest changes:
October 1948: Release on the Paris Autosalon. This car, designed by Pierre Boulanger is the most extraordinary design of the show. The Citroën stand has never been this crowded. It looks revolutionary and it's mechanics are as well. It is designed to take a basket full of eggs over the country roads without breaking an egg. It is light, very economical and cheap. A car for the masses.
1949: Real start of production with the A. 375cc 9hp engine, gray metallic body, black dashboard and steeringwheel.
1951: The AU (2cv van) is introduced.
1953: The oval around the chevrons on the bonnet dissapears. The welding seem on the sides of the bonned dissapears as well.
1954: New for berline and cammionette: 425cc 12hp, with centrifugal clutch.
1956: New model, the AZL. This is the more luxureous version of the AZ. Lots of chrome trim.
1957: Bootlid available.
1958: The 2cv 4x4 (sahara) appears. Four wheel drive is achieved by an additonal engine in the boot driving the rear wheels. 1959: New closed wheels 125x380 or 135x380.
1960: The 5 ripple bonnet appears, first on the Berline only. 1963: The AK350 appears. This is a longer version of the AZU and has the AMI6 602 engine.
1964: The front doors are no longer suicide but open at the rear.
1969: The alloy valve covers are replaced by steel ones.
1970: 2CV4 with 435cc 24 DIN bhp engine.
2CV6 with 602cc 28.5 DIN bhp engine.
Also new are: 12V electrics, AMI6 rear lights on a modified rear body panel, front round indicators in the wings.
July: The AK350 is replaced by the AK400. The difference is a higher luggage compartment and 50kg extra load capacity.
1972: January: The AZU gets the 435 engine and wide side ripples.
1974: Square headlights on all cars.
1978: The production of the AZU and AK400 is stopped. They are replaced by the Acadiane.
1990: THE END.


Dyane 1968-1983

Models:
- Berline
- Van (Acadiane)

For month to month changes, please go too:

1968: The first Dyane appears as a more modern replacement for the 2cv. Four models of Dyane with 21 SAE hp:
- Berline luxe.
- Berline comfort.
- Commerciale luxe.
- Commerciale comfort.
The comfort models are better equipped and therefore more expensive. Later this year the following models are available: 2 models Dyane with 21 SAE hp (425cc). Four new models of Dyane 4 with 435cc engine delivering 26 SAE hp. Four new models of Dyane 6 with 602cc engine delivering 28 SAE hp.
1969: Two models of Dyane 4 (Berline, Commerciale), and four models of Dyane 6 now with 33 SAE hp engine.
1970: All Dyanes get a 12V electrical installation and the third sidescreens.. A list of all models:
- Berline Dyane with 435cc 26 SAE hp engine. Topspeed: 105 km/h.
- Commerciale Dyane with 435cc 26 SAE hp engine. Topspeed: 105 km/h.
- Berline Dyane 6 with 602cc 35 SAE hp engine. Topspeed: 118 km/h.
- Commerciale Dyane 6 with 602cc 35 SAE hp engine. Topspeed: 118 km/h.
1971-1972:No changes.
1973: Small change of the doors.
1974: New tires: 125 15 X instead of 125 X 380.
1975: New grill and stainless steel bumpers.
1976: The only Dyane available is the Dyane 6. The supremacy of the 2cv over the Dyane becomes clear: 4 models of the 2cv and 1 Dyane. Because of the oil crisis, the 2cvs and Dyanes are very popular.
1977: The Dyane Caban is a limited edition of 1500 cars. Here is a list of all models:
- Berline Dyane 6 Comfort.
- Berline Dyane 6 Caban.
1978: The Dyane gets disc brakes at the front. Just like the 2cv, the Dyane now also gets a van version, called Acadiane.
1979: No changes.
1980: A 25 liter fuel tank instead of a 20 liter one.
1981: New carburation adjustment and rear view mirror. 30 hp, topspeed 121 km/h.
1982: No changes.
1983: New seatbelts for all cars.
1984: THE END! The Dyane has lost the race with the car it should have replaced, the 2cv. The Acadiane is still produced until 1986.


Mehari 1968-1987

Models:
- Mehari 2 places
- Mehari 4 places

1968: The little 2cv jeep called Mehari with plastic body appears with 602cc engine from the Dyane 6.
1969: The mehari gets the engine from the Dyane with 33 SEA hp as well.
1970: All Meharis get a 12V electrical installation and a few body modifications. New round indicators, reinforcement of the base of the windscreen and new rear light rangement. A list of all models:
- Mehari 2 places with 602cc 35 SAE hp engine. Topspeed: 112 km/h.
- Mehari 4 places with 602cc 35 SAE hp engine. Topspeed: 112 km/h.
1971-1973: No changes.
1974: New tires: 135 15 X instead of 135 X 380.
1975: No changes.
1976: The hp figure is reduced from 28.5 DIN hp to 26 DIN hp.
1977: Here is a list of all models:
- Mehari 2 places.
- Mehari 4 places.
1978: Disc brakes at the front and a detachable grille so you don't have to take half the car apart every time you have to set or replace the points.
1979: The power is increased through a double choke carburettor to 29 hp. Also a new dashboard similar to that of the Visa.
1980: Mehari 4x4 production is started. This car only has one engine with special differential at the back wheels.
1981-1983: No changes.
1984: A special edition. The Mehari Azur with partly fold back roof like the 2cv and different wheels. White only. No more Mehari 4x4.
1985-1987: No changes and THE END.


Ami 6, 8, Super and M35 1961-1978

Models:
- Berline
- Break
- Service

The Ami is a sort of comfortable 2cv. It has 2cv chassis and mechanicals but much stronger body. It has the ride comfort of the 2cv, with a very distinct body style and much more interior comfort. Top of the line is the Ami Super with GS engine, but Ami 6 is nicest to look at. Here are the changes year by year:
April 1961: The first Ami 6 appears. Easily recognisable by its inverted rear window, it has the later 2cv engine, 602cc, 22 hp, 4 speed full synchro gearbox and a topspeed of 105 km/h.
1962: Unlike the first cars, the rear doors now have sliding windows just like the front ones. There is also a exterior locking and opening button below the bootlid. Late 1962 the front bench becames adjustable while driving.
1963: Telescopic hydraulic shock absorbers all round, so no more Batteurs and Frotteurs.
1964: Suspended pedals and a slightly more powerful engine, 24.5 DIN hp, topspeed 110 km/h.
1965: Bonnet is opened from inside the car. New grille. New model, the Break. It has an aluminium roof. Battery is slightly more powerful but still 6 Volt. Also a new rectangular airfilter.
1966: The break gets a third bulge in the roof for reinforcement.
1967: A new grill with 3 horizontal bars. New heating. Black dashboard. 12 Volts electrical installation.
1968: A slightly stronger engine and different front sidescreens. New rearlights which will be used on the 2cv as well. The new Club model can be recognised by the 4 round headlights. In May the engine is improved to 35 SAE hp, topspeed 123 km/h. The Club gets different hubcaps and chrome trim strips on the bottom of the doors and rear wings. Another new model is the Service. A 2 door break which can be bought with blanked off sidescreens. The cars are used as Citroën breakdown aid cars.
1969: During this year, the Ami 8 appears and gradually replaces the Ami 6. It's basically the same car but has some exterior differences. The front is restyled and the rear of the Berline has lost its inverted screen.
1970: The Ami gets discs at the front. A small series of Rotary engined cars is produced with a Ami coupe sort of body, called the M35. This car also has hydraulic suspension like the GS. 49 hp gives it a topspeed of 144 km/h!. Only 212 produced in 1970 and 49 in 1971.
1971: Wind up windows for all cars from the summer of 1970 onwards.
1972: No changes.
1973: The Ami Super arrives. It should fill the gap between GS and 2 cylinder Citroëns. It's basically a Ami 8 with a 1015cc GS engine. The external differences are: 6 square holes in the front valance below the grille, vertical bar with Citroën emblem on the grill, 135 15 X tires and different interior. Topspeed is 140 km/h (Ami 8: 123 km/h). The Super is available both as Berline and Break.
1974: The Ami Super gets holes in its wheels and stripes along the sides of the car. The "1015" monogram on the right front wing is replaced by "Ami Super". 125 15 X tires for the Ami 8.
1975: For the Ami Super: 135 SR-15 ZX tires.
1976: No changes.
1977: No more Ami Super. No other changes.
1978: No changes, and the end of the Ami. It was supposed to be interesting to people who thought the 2cv was to bare. It never did get going but you can still find reasonable examples in the south of France, still being used daily!


SM Sport Maserati 1970-1975

On the 11th of January 1968, a deal is made between Citroën and Maserati. Citroën buys a large share of Maserati stock. Citroën parts will be used in Maseratis and Maserati will built an engine for Citroën's prestige GT car. So the SM is born. At the time it was the fastest front wheel drive car in the world. The changes year by year:
1970: SM is introduced during the Paris autosalon. Specification:
Maserati 90 degree V6, 2670cc 87x75mm
170 DIN hp @ 5500 rpm
2 overhead camshafts per head, 4 in total
3 Double choke Weber carburettors
DIRAVI speed dependant powered steering
195/70 VR 15 X tires and powered disc brakes all round
Fully independent and self levelling suspension
Topspeed: 220 km/h. The fastest front wheel drive car at that time.
1971: No changes.
1972: Roues Resin (Carbon fibre wheels) as an option. These wheels are especially developed by Michelin for the SM and don't fit other cars. They weigh 4.2 kgs instead of the steel ones at 9.4 kgs.
1973: All SMs get Bosch D-jetronic electronic fuel injection, delivering 178 DIN hp. It's basically the same system as on the DS. New tires 205/70 VR 15 are fitted. Topspeed is now 228 km/h.
1974: The car can now also be delivered with Borg Warner automatic transmission. Together with this transmission also comes a stronger engine to cope with the loss of power by the transmission. It's a 2995cc version but with carburettors delivering 180 DIN hp. Topspeed is 205 km/h. In the USA and Canada (the primary market for this combination), some cars are delivered with the 3 liter engine but with manual gearbox. The emission equipment takes away a lot of power on cars from this country.
1975: At the end of 1974 the automatic disappears and with the disappearing of the injection during the summer of 1975 the production of the SM is ended.


DS and ID 1955-1975

Models:
- Berline
- Break
- Cabriolet

Here is the history year by year. Because the car was introduced at the end of 1955 and this was model year 1956, this is where the history will begin.
1956: Introduction of the DS 19. This car still has the Traction Avant engine and with its 75 hp the car can reach 140 km/h. The gearbox is different however with 4 forward gears hydraulically aided like the brakes and suspension.
1957: It turns out that the research done on the 15 Six H hasn't been enough. The hydraulic system proves unreliable and another model is introduced for the people that are put of by the hydraulic trouble of the early cars. It is the ID 19 which only has hydraulic aided suspension with normal brakes and gearbox. It has a 63 hp engine propelling the car to a topspeed of 130 km/h. The DS is produced alongside the ID.
1958: The DS gets the ID's exhaust system with two small pipes exiting on the left in stead of one in the middle.
1959: Two new models are introduced. The break which is a station wagon version of the ID and the prestige which is a DS or ID with separation between driver and passengers.
1960: New front wings for DS and ID with air intakes below the headlights.
1961: The cabriolet is introduced. It's designed and built by Chapron who also built various other special Citroëns but it's sold by Citroën. The ID gets an automatic clutch as an option, and a new dashboard. Both ID and DS get a 12 volt electrical installation instead of 6 volt. Improved engine for DS 19. 83 hp, topspeed: 150 km/h.
1962: The ID gets assisted breaks. The wipers get automatic return on both ID and DS. The DS gets a new dashboard and climate control.
1963: New front and rear bumpers with rubber overriders for ID and DS. Chromed grilles on top of the wings disappear. The ID gets a new undertray and synchromesh on first gear. The ID 19 Break gets stronger 83 SAE hp engine. Topspeed: 150 km/h.
1964: The break gets a folding rear bench.
1965: A new and even more luxurious DS appears; the DS Pallas. differences include: two additional headlights, rubber and stainless steel protection strips along the doors, strips along the bottom of the doors, different hubcaps, B and C posts covered with stainless steel, leather covered seats, leather door cappings, layered windscreen. Other novelties: New, stronger engine (70 DIN hp) for the ID 19. The ID and DS now have identical dashboards. The ID also gets 2 speed windscreen wipers.
1966: New undertray for the DS and new hubcaps for the Pallas. A list of all available types:
- ID 19 Berline: 1911cc 74 DIN hp topspeed:158 km/h.
- ID 19 Break: 1985cc 74 DIN hp topspeed:165 km/h.
- ID 21 Break: 2175cc 100 DIN hp topspeed:175 km/h.
- DS 19 Berline: 1985cc 74 DIN hp topspeed:165 km/h. (also Pallas and Prestige)
- DS 21 Berline and Cabriolet: 2175cc 100 DIN hp topspeed:175km/h. (also Pallas and Prestige)
1967: All cars get a mineral oil for their high pressure system. Because of the oil's colour, this new system is called the green system. The old system is called the red system. Parts from both systems are NOT interchangeable because the wrong fluid will dissolve the rubbers of the wrong colour! New engine for the ID 19. 1985cc 78 DIN hp. The topspeed is now 160 km/h. This is the same engine as in the DS 19 and the difference in power is caused by the single choke carburettor in the ID in stead of the DS double choke one. Compression ratio on the ID is 8:1 and on the DS 8.75:1 also explains the power difference.
1968: All cars get the faired in swivelling headlights. This change also calls for a different front bumper.
1969: Lots of engine changes, a list of all cars:
- ID 19 Berline: 1985cc, 81,5 DIN hp, 160 km/h, tires:180 HR 380 XAS front, 155 HR 380 XAS rear.
- ID 20 Berline: 1985cc, 91 DIN hp, 167 km/h, tires:180 HR 380 XAS front, 155 HR 380 XAS rear.
- DS 20 Berline: 1985cc, 91 DIN hp, 167 km/h, tires:180 HR 380 XAS front, 155 HR 380 XAS rear.
- DS 21 Berline: 2175cc, 106 DIN hp, 178 km/h, tires:180 HR 380 XAS front, 165 HR 380 XAS rear.
- Breaks: 20 and 21 engine and tires.
1970: The ID 19 is replaced by the D Spèciale, the ID 20 by the D Super. All cars get a new dashboard. The new DS is the DS 21 Injection. 2175cc, 125 DIN hp, topspeed: 188 km/h.
1971: Last year for the DS cabriolet. The DS 21 Prestige is replaced by the DS 21 Prestige Pallas. 5 Speed gearbox standard on the DS 21 Carburettor and Injection. Option on other cars.
1972: Again new engines, a list of all types:
- D Spècial, 89 DIN hp, topspeed: 163 km/h.
- D Super, 99 DIN hp, topspeed: 169 km/h.
- DS 20, 99 DIN hp, topspeed: 169 km/h.
- DS 21, Carburettor, 106 DIN hp, topspeed 178 km/h.
- DS 21, Injection, 125 DIN hp, topspeed 188 km/h.
1973: A new DS, the D Super 5 with 2175cc engine, 106 DIN hp, same engine as the DS 21 but the car is less luxurious. The DS 21 is replaced by the DS 23 Carburettor and DS 23 Injection.
DS 23, Carburettor, 2347cc, 115 DIN hp, 179 km/h.
DS 23, Injection, 2347cc, 130 DIN hp, 188 km/h.
At 188 km/h the DS is one of the most comfortable fast touring cars. It should really be called a GT. The D Spècial gets the 99 DIN hp engine from the D Super. All cars get a diaphragm clutch.
1974: All cars from the DS 20 up get a Triplex layered safety windscreen. This is an option on the other cars. The changes for all models:
- D Spècial, Tires: 180-15 XAS front and 155-15 XAS rear.
- D Super, Tires: 180-15 XAS front and 155-15 XAS rear.
- D Super 5, Tires: 180-15 XAS front and 165-15 XAS rear.
- DS 20, Tires: 180-15 XAS front and 155-15 XAS rear.
- DS 23, Tires: 180-15 XAS front and 165-15 XAS rear.
- DS 23, Tires: 185-15 XAS front and 185-15 XAS rear.
1975: Again new tires:
- D Spècial, D Super, DS 20: 180 HR-15 XAS front and 155 HR-15 XAS rear.
- D Super 5, DS 23 Carburettor: 180 HR-15 XAS front and 165 HR-15 XAS rear.
- DS 23 Injection: 185 HR-15 XAS front and 185 HR-15 XAS rear.
24th of April 1975, the 1,330,775th DS rolls of the production line. This is also the last. The DS is replaced by a car of the same extraordinary calibre, the CX.


GS and GSA 1970-1986

Models:
- Berline
- Birotor Berline
- Break
- Service

Although most people don't realise this, even the GS was a very revolutionary car. It was one of the first more luxurious and comfortable mid range cars. It has hydraulic self levelling suspension, is very spacious and quite fast. Here are the changes year by year:
1971: First GS. Berlines only. 1015cc boxer engine, 55.5 DIN hp, topspeed:147 km/h. Disc brakes all round.
1972: Two new models: Break, and service. Service is a 2 door break, could also be delivered with closed up. These cars were used as breakdown aid cars by Citroën.
1973: New engine option: 1222cc, 60 DIN hp, 151 km/h topspeed. This engine is also available with semi automatic gearbox.
1974: A small series of Rotary engined cars is built (834 during 1974, 31 during 1975). 107 DIN hp, topspeed: 175 km/h!!! The cars have the future CX wheels and hubcaps and modification to the wings in order to fit these.
1975: Two new models. First the X2. Car with 1220 engine but delivering 65 DIN hp, topspeed 157 km/h. The other novelty is the very luxurious GS, easily identified by the large hubcaps and chrome trim along the doors. The GS Service is no longer sold.
1976: The service models are discontinued. All models get a slight decrease in power.
1977: Front grille changes from gray to black with horizontal black bars, stainless steel for Club and Pallas models. More square rear lights. Chrome bootlid surrounds are replaced by an alu plate on the top of the lid. Mat black front bumpers for the GSX and GSX2. Round dials in the dashboard instead of the square ones with rotating disc.
1978: The 1015cc is replaced with a 1130cc. Power only increases 1hp to 56hp but torque and fuel consumption improve considerably. X2 has new hubcaps and fog lights. G Special and GS Club have a folding rear seat as an option. New hubcaps for the pallas. All types:
1130: Berline G Special, Berline GSX, Break G Special.
1220: Berline Club, Berline Pallas, Berline Basalte, Break Club.
GSX2 Berline.
The Berline Basalte is a special series of about 1800 cars. Specification includes: Black with red stripes, wipers on the headlights, fog lights, radio, sun roof and matching interior.
1979: GS X2 is replaced by the GS X3. 1299cc, 65 DIN hp, topspeed 158 km/h/ 100mph.
1980: The GS is replaced by the GSA. This means that all types get different bumpers, hubcaps, grille, door handles interior and larger boot lid. The GS Special is the only model that doesn't get these changes. The X3 gets 5 speed gearbox which is an option on the Pallas.
1981: The GS Special now becomes the GSA Special. All models except the C-matic and the X3 get an econometer.
1982: The 1299cc engine gets better fuel consumption without any change in performance.
1983: The GSA Club is replaced by the GSA X1 with an optional 5 speed gearbox.
1984: The 1130cc engine disappears. Only the Special, Pallas, X1 and X3 models are left. The Club is only available as Break. The C-matic option disappears as well.
1985: The 5 speed transmission option is replaced by the 5 speed long transmission option which features a longer 5th gear ratio.
1986: Light alloy wheel and sun roof option disappear and by 1987 the whole GSA range has disappeared!


CX 1974-1991

Models:
- Berline
- Prestige
- Break

The CX is the replacement for the DS. Although the DS is very comfortable and a joy to drive, the CX is at least as good and a little more modern (for those who like this). In some countries the Break is called Safari. Here are the changes year by year:
1975: The first year there are only 3 types with the same engines as the DS:
CX 2000: 1985cc, 102 DIN hp, 174 km/h, 4 speed gearbox.
CX 2000 Économique: same as 2000 but with different gear ratios. (only for 1975).
CX 2200: 2175cc, 112 DIN hp, 179 km/h,.
This year the 2200 still has large hubcaps but the next year these will be replaced with the small hollow ones from the 2000.
1976: Lots of new models!:
CX Pallas: Luxurious version, with lots of rubber on the doors and bumpers.
CX Diesel 2200: 2175cc, 66 DIN hp, 146 km/h.
CX Break 2000/2200: Largest European Stationwagon of all time! (I think).
CX 2400 Prestige: 2347cc, 115 DIN hp, 180 km/h. The longer version of the CX. Built on the CX Break floorpan, it's roomier inside then any Mercedes!
1977: On the 2400 there is a semi automatic gearbox called C-Matic as an option. New model is the CX 2400 GTI. 128 DIN hp, 189 km/h. Not available as Break or Prestige.
1978: New engines: 2500cc Diesel, 75 DIN hp, 147 km/h (4-speed), 156 km/h (5-speed). 2400cc Injection, 128 DIN hp, 190 km/h (5-speed), 180 km/h (C-matic). C-matic transmission available on CX 2400 injection Pallas and Prestige models.
1979: New console with different heating and ventilation. 5-Speed 2500 Diesel now really available.
1980: 2 New models: Athena and Reflex. They replace the 2000cc model. The only difference apart from the name is the engine. 2000cc with SOHC, 106 DIN hp, 4 or 5 speed. The 2500 Diesel receives a new model as well. It's the long version like the petrol Prestige but with Diesel engine it's called Limousine.
1981: Econometer for all models. 5-Speed gearbox only on Athena, 2500 Diesel Super and Pallas. The 2400 carburettor gains 5 hp. The C-matic is replaced by a ZF automatic gearbox, available on 2400 carburettor and injection models. The GTi receives a small spoiler on the bootlid.
1982: All cars get wider front wings to give room to the new TRX tires fitted on the GTi and as option on 2400 Pallas and Prestige. The Breaks get the 2400 injection engine which means the 2400 carburettor disappears. Braking system is reviewed with speed controlled system as option on some models.
1983: New names:
Reflex -> CX 20.
Athena -> CX 20 TRE.
CX 2500 Diesel Reflex -> CX 25 D.
CX 2400 Injection Pallas -> CX Pallas IE.
Other changes include new grille and front indicators.
1984: 2500cc Diesel Turbo available. 75 hp becomes 95 hp. 2400cc Petrol engine replaced by 2500cc engine. 138 DIN hp. 200 km/h for Pallas IE and Prestige. 210 km/h for GTi.
1985: New rear view mirror, electric oil level gauge and seats. 2 New models: 25 RI, 138 DIN hp (down tuned GTi) and 25 GTi Turbo, 168 DIN hp, 220 km/h.
1986: Introduction of the series 2. This includes: plastic bumpers front and rear and dashboard. New model is the 22 TRS, 2165cc, 115 DIN hp, 177km/h. ABS optional on all petrol injection and turbo diesel models.
1987: Intercooler on turbo makes the Turbo 2.


Commercial vehicles

The first Citroën Commercial vehicles are directly derived from the non commercial vehicles, therefore this history will start in 1931, when the first specially developed commercial vehicles appear.
October 1931: The first autocars are built, capable of carrying 22 people. These cars are fitted with C6G mechanicals and 1600 are built until December 1932.
October 1933: The first real trucks appear based on the Rosalie 8 and 10, the T29 and the T45. Both have six cylinder engines.The trucks are available in more then a dozen different guises among which are busses and a cabine on a chassis. The production of the T45 starts in March 1934.
October 1934: The T32 appears. This truck replaces the T29 and has a 3053cc 4 cylinder engine. Load capacity is 3200 kgs and the bus version which is bodied outside the factory is built until 1948.
October 1935: The famous T23 appears. It has the Traction Avant engine, fitted back to front and driving the rear wheels. The load capacity is 1500 to 1800 kgs and the truck is later also fitted with a Diesel engine with 500 to 800 kgs load capacity. The T23 is built until 1948.
October 1936: The 4 cylinder Diesel engine appears. It powers the T23 similar 50 Di (500 kgs), 850 Di (850 kgs) and 23 Di (1500 kgs).
October 1937: Two new Diesel engines are develloped. The T32 gets a 3053cc 4 cylinder engine and the T45 gets a 4580cc 6 cylinder engine. This engine, with light modifications, is used until 1971.
1939: In this year a vehicle appears which looks a lot like the vans still used today. It's the TUB which is largely based on the Traction Avant, using is front axle, engine and gearbox. The engine is from the 7C although soon a version with the 11 engine is available. The 7 powered van has 850 kg load capacity and the 11 powered van has 1200 kg load capacity. Between 1938 and 1940 300 cars with 9cv engine are built, and 50 with 11cv engine.
1940: Because of the lack of conventional fuels, the T45 G is presented. The G stands for Gazogene. This is an engine powered by wood, and quite popular in France. Quite a few Traction Avants were fitted with these Gazogene installations as well.
1947: In the autum, the H is introduced. It continues where the TUB left off, but now it's a monocoque design. Again lots of mechanical parts from the Traction Avant are used. The front axle is a modified 15 Six item, engine is from the 11 and even some interior elements are from the Traction such as dashboard and seats. The van is easily recognisable with its corugated body work and it's square appearance. The early models have a two piece windscreen with a pillar in the middle. At first all vans are Grey metallic and available in three versions: closed and 2 pickup versions.
1949: The HZ appears with 850 kg load capacity but a 19 km/h higher top speed then it's bigger brother. From this year onwards both the HY and the HZ have 17x400 tyres.
1958: A new type, the HY replaces the H with a larger load capacity, 1500 kg.
1961: Two new types. The HY-DI and HZ-DI with 4 cylinder Perkins Diesel engine and 12 Volt electrics.
1963: Towards the end of this year a new the petrol engines is added with aluminium cylinderhead, delivering 45 hp. These now also get the 12 Volt electrics. These are now called HY-72 and HZ-72 because of the 72 bore.
1964: The windscreen is now one piece. The diesel engines now also get an aluminium head, delivering 50 hp @ 4000 rpm from 1816cc. These are now called HY-IN and HZ-IN.


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